According to the Jain Philosophy pudgal i.e. matter exists in two forms:
Matter possessing mass
The unique concept of massless matter has been elaborately analysed in Jain literature. The massless matter is so subtle that it is unobservable even by the meticulous scientific instruments so far as known to us. The massless matter is fully filled or rather packed in the universe. There is an interchange ability relationship between mass form and massless form. Hence the mass content at a particular point at any moment does not remain the same in the universe. However, the sum total of the different forms of pudgal - matter remains unaltered within the confines of the universe. The interchange, taking place within two forms of matter as mentioned above, may be represented as under:
Massless Matter <=> Mass Matter
The shift of equilibrium on either side will change the mass density. Therefore, the Jains have not recognised the mass as a fundamental property of the reality of the universe. There is great support of modern science to the Jain cosmologist regarding the existence of the massless matter. The 'quark-soup' that constituted the universe at the early times on the cosmic clock is an ultimate testing ground for the theories of particle physics.
The discovery of massless particles, viz. gluons with different form of quarks has given sanction to the Jain observations on massless matter. Therefore, the future researches in particle physics, particularly the gluons and quarks would help in understanding the true nature of massless matter. It is highly commendable that the Jains have observed the massless matter in nature two thousand year ago. Their observations on massless matter may give suggestive lead to modern cosmology.
Modern cosmologists have observed and confirmed the peculiar feature in galaxies that new galaxies are forming i.e. new matter is in the process of creation. Such observations have lent support to the continuous creation hypothesis. But this goes against the law of conservation of mass and conservation of energy. If this disputable issue is examined in the light of the Jain cosmology, it may be suggested that when an equilibrium shift takes place from massless form to mass form of matter, it is felt as if new matter has been created. However, the pudgal i.e. both the forms of matter their total plus remains the same. We have to keep our discussion restricted to theoretical assumptions because of the non-availability of its mathematical calculation. The old writings of Jain literature are in the Prakrit language and out of respect for the rules of grammar the calculation part seems to have been omitted.